I am grateful to the anonymous reviewers and to the Editorial Committee for their valuable comments. It is frequently quoted that the city reached , inhabitants at the beginning of the seventeenth century. Although this number is not very reliable, it had , in and , in Tandeter, quoted by Mangan , Jane E. The population of London in the mids was approximately , and Paris had around , inhabitants by Paula Zagalsky gives a detailed account of the number of mitayos.
Mangan, Trading Roles. In general, there is an agreement on the forced and compulsory character of the mita. She published, at the end of her article, a list of one hundred cases of women involved in mining between and The present study does not take into account the important role of the wives of workers as providers of food for their husbands and as caretakers for their family. In other words, the significant world of the reproduction of labour power.
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Some common characteristics of ASM include activities that range from informal to formal and may or may not be well-organized; linked to rural poverty with a lack of alternatives that would provide better opportunities for income generation, sometimes seasonal, labour intensive, and with low levels of technology.
Betti, K. Miller eds The Power of the Norm. Fragile Rules and Significant Exceptions. A Festschrift for Marcel van der Linden Leiden , The author gives a good overview of the four schools Dualist, Structuralist, Legalist, and Voluntarist about informal employment and informal economy. Castilian norms were applied in several places, although the laws also had a local character.
XIX , Ley j.
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It was also explained that the Indians could hold and exploit gold and silver mines in the same way as the Spaniards. Memorial y Ordenanzas de Francisco de Toledo, Lima, About yanaconas , see de Querejazu , Laura Escobari , Caciques, yanaconas y extravagantes. See Bakewell, Miners of the Red Mountain, pp. Cohen , C. See also Jane Mangan, Trading Roles , p. See the important Jesuit intervention in the discussion on Numhauser , P.
Cristianesimo nella Storia , 32 : 1 , pp. Bakewell, Miners of the Red Mountain , pp. Bakewell, Miners of the Red Mountain , p. There is no special book devoted to these mine guilds and azogueros. Bakewell wrote about one of the richest of them in the second half of the seventeenth century. Their complex evolution over time, their debts to the Spanish Crown and to the silver merchants are important topics not completely analysed by the historiography.
Garavaglia speaks of five stages. I added one stage. Bigelow also analyses the importance of the terms pallar and pallatha. Alonso Barba, Arte de los Metales Lima, , pp. He also explained that the wages in kind paid to the mingas were called corpa p.
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Ayllu is the traditional social, economic, and political community in the Andes. Each community had their lands and, within each of them, there were family plots and communal land. I have used the same source as Tandeter for —, but I found only trapiches instead of This is because I relied on the detailed account rather than the total given by the document. The private azogueros were involved and they had a vested interest in this institution because it provided them with loans and discounts.
There were daily transactions: from sixteen to twenty every day, ranging from transactions for some months, to just two transactions on some days. The ores exploited by them were transformed in silver in the trapiches or rudimentary mills. This is also an example on how workers struggled to have their part in the new economy.
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Este importante hecho ha sido abordado por Tandeter y Abercrombie. Consta… de dos piedras grandes y duras, llana la de abaxo, que llaman solera, asentada a nivel sobre el plan de la tierra, en forma de rueda, o queso entero la de arriba, en los trapiches que mueven cavalgaduras como en las Atahonas, o Molinos de aceytunas. Trapiche minero. Imagen 3 — Trapiche B y Cochas D. Foto de la autora. Del total de trapiches listados, solo 64 estaban claramente trabajando con licencia o permiso. Trapiches del Curato de San Francisco el Chico.
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En otras palabras, los trapicheros aprovechaban sobre todo los meses de lluvias porque el agua era fundamental para la mezcla de la harina con el azogue. Fuente: Banco de San Carlos BSC , Libro donde se sientan los marcos que se traen al rescate de los trapicheros de esta rivera, , fol. Algunos ejemplos son interesantes.
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Popular porque no estuvo en manos de los azogueros tradicionales sino en manos generalmente de los trabajadores. Absie, Pascale Los ministros del Diablo. Sucre, Bakewell, Peter Miners of the Red Mountain. De Negris, M. Elites intelectuales y modelos colectivos. Santiago, Zulawski, Anne They eat from their labor.
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