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These measures are indicated in Figure 1. Examine the allocation of tasks between workers and machines or computers. Workers may be moved from a hazardous area and automation could take over their job.

A Guide to Human Factors and Ergonomics

Poor work posture leads to fatigue and poor work quality. Redesign work processes and workstation to improve worker posture, comfort, and convenience. The ambient environment—illumination, noise, vibration, and heat or cold—can be stressful. For example, inadequate illumination makes it difficult to see safety hazards, and therefore the low illumination imposes stress. Organizational factors, such as allocation of responsibility and autonomy, as well as policies for communication, can be changed.

Sometimes operators are not in charge of their own processes. Valuable time is lost if they must contact supervisors to get permission to shut down a process. Design features of a machine can be improved, including changes of controls and displays. Their relative importance varies depending on the system. In a nuclear power plant, safety and production of electricity are two self-evident goals, and together they determine the design of the plant. To enhance system performance, one can design a system which improves performance affordances.

This means that through efficient design of the system the operator can excel in exercising his or her skills. Such system design makes it possible to perceive quickly, make fast decisions, and exercise efficient control. To improve systems performance an ergonomist could, for example, design systems affordances so that they enhance important skill parameters: handling of machine controls becomes intuitive e. One can measure productivity, quality, and time to perform a task, and one can ask the operator how well the system works subjective assessment. These measures are the common dependent variables used to measure the productivity of a system.


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However, research has shown that people cannot simultaneously reduce errors and increase speed. In general, the greater the speed of vehicles, production machinery, etc. Shorter work cycles improve productivity but compromise safety. Operators hence have a choice between increased speed or increased accuracy.

It is, however, possible to improve safety and quality of production at the same time. A reduction in the number of operator errors will typically lead to improved safety as well as improved production quality. An emphasis on quality of production is therefore more appropriate and more effective than the traditional approach in industry, which stresses speed and quantity of production.

Various aspects of dissatisfaction are also considered, such as job dissatisfaction and consumer dissatisfaction. Different people have different needs and different expectations, and these vary substantially between countries and cultures. For example, in Sweden there is a law that requires that office workers must have an office with a window. Office workers in the U. It is not expected and therefore they are happy anyway.

The Ergonomics Kit for General Industry, Second Edition - Dan MacLeod - Google 圖書

Job satisfaction does not influence productivity or safety. One would think that a satisfied worker would produce more and a dissatisfied worker would produce less. One would also think that a satisfied worker would be safer and a dissatisfied worker not so safe.

But extensive research on these issues has demonstrated that there is no relationship between satisfaction and productivity, safety, or quality. A guide to human factors and ergonomics 16 1. The following can characterize the development over the last 50 years. Different issues have driven the development of our science from to the present. The systems approach in Figure 1. Our profession is driven by design requirements from users, markets, industries, organizations, and governments.

The Ergonomics Kit for General Industry - Dan MacLeod - كتب Google

We must be able to respond quickly to the changing needs of society. HFE is therefore at the forefront of technological development. Ergonomics will continue to evolve and professional ergonomists must extend their knowledge to deal with a rapidly changing scenario.

I believe that this will require increasing interaction with other disciplines to solve problems. Most problems in this world are of an interdisciplinary nature. In the design of complex systems it is necessary to apply many design criteria simultaneously. In manufacturing there are goals related to quality, productivity, and worker satisfaction. One can probably not find a design solution that can fully satisfy all criteria.

The problem is then to identify a design solution that is good enough—where all assessment criteria have reached an acceptable level. Multiple criteria are thereby satisfyced. In Chapter 2, we discuss the benefits and costs of HFE improvements in two areas: manufacturing and human-computer interaction.

We will note that design changes can improve all aspects of system performance, productivity as well as satisfaction—a winwin situation, as they say. Such a redesign will cost money, and in order to justify the expense we must be certain that there will be benefits associated with the improvements. The question is, are improvements worthwhile?

Do they pay off? In this chapter two case studies are presented. The first study concerns a manufacturing plant. In manufacturing there can be several types of benefits: improved productivity and quality, reduced injury rate, and improved worker comfort. In this case, the economic benefits from improved productivity were substantial, and much larger than the other benefits.

The second case study deals with improvements in human-computer interaction. There are many ways to measure the benefits, such as reduced task performance time, reduced number of key strokes, or number of user errors. For example, one can measure the time it takes to complete filling in credit card information on an e-commerce web page.

The boards consisted of multiple layers of copper sheeting and fiber glass with etched circuitry. Holes were drilled through the circuit board for insertion of components. Much of the component insertion was automated using special machines—so-called cardstacking machines. However, there were many tasks which could not be automated, including quality control and inspection of component parts and finished products. One important measure of quality in the manufacturing of boards is the percentage production yield.

Figure 2. Altogether, individuals, mostly operators, worked at this location, which had 59 workstations. To evaluate the manufacturing scenario, information was collected from five different sources: 1. Discussion with management. We asked them what the problem was and what should be the focus of our study. These questions brought up new issues to pursue.